Congenital Dental Pathology

Enamel Defects

Enamel defects are small pits or other malformations on the enamel surface.

Enamel hypomineralization (EH) (hypocalcification)

 

Enamel hypoplasia / hypocalcification

 

Enamel hypoplasia / hypocalcification


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Dentin Staining

Dentin is the main component of teeth. It is normally covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the tooth's root.

Yellow stained incisors, canines and premolars from tetracycline use


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Clinically Missing Teeth

Normally, dogs have 42 teeth and cats have 30. However, when teeth do not appear above the surface, measures must be taken to find out whether or not all or part of the tooth is present under the gum line.

Clinically missing mandibular second premolar

 

Radiograph displaying missing second premolar

 

Clinically missing mandibular first premolar

 

Horizontally impacted first premolar with bone loss

 

Radiograph displaying diagonally impacted first premolar

 

Radiograph displaying embedded malformed canine


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Rotated Teeth (ROT)

Occasionally, one or more teeth are orientated at right angles to normal teeth. This condition may lead to periodontal disease.

Rotated maxillary 3rd premolar


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Supernumerary Teeth (SN)

A supernumerary tooth is any tooth in addition to the normal dentition primary or secondary.

Boxer with extra upper left premolar teeth causing crowding


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Fusion

Fusion is the joining of two tooth germs, resulting in a single large tooth. Fusion may involve the entire length of the teeth or only the roots, depending on the stage of development of the teeth at the time of the union. Usually, there will be two separate root canals. With fusion, the tooth count will reveal a missing tooth when the anomalous tooth is counted as one.

Clinical appearance of fused maxillary incisor

 

Fusion of the left first and second maxillary incisors


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Gemini

Gemination is an attempt to make two teeth from one enamel organ. It results in a structure with two completely or incompletely separated crowns with a single enlarged root and root canal. With gemination, the tooth count will be normal when the anomalous tooth is counted as one.

Gemination of the maxillary left second primary incisor

 

Gemination of the maxillary first premolar


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Persistent Primary (Deciduous) Teeth (DT) Canine

The adult tooth normally pushes the primary (deciduous/baby) tooth out of the mouth. Sometimes (especially in small breeds), the adult tooth erupts next to the deciduous tooth, causing swelling and displacement of the adult tooth.

Upper deciduous canine pushing adult tooth forward


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Persistent Primary (Deciduous) Teeth (DT) Feline

The adult tooth normally pushes the primary (deciduous/baby) tooth out of the mouth. Sometimes (especially in small breeds), the adult tooth erupts next to the deciduous tooth, causing swelling and displacement of the adult tooth.

Maxillary persistent canines (rostral view)

 

Maxillary persistent canine (buccal view)


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