Pulpitis is the inflammation of the pulpal tissue, often discolouring the tooth.
Teeth can be worn by abnormal contact with opposing teeth or by chewing.
Worn maxillary incisor teeth (AT)
Wear facet of the mandibular right canine (AT)
Luxation is a partial displacement of the tooth out of its socket. Avulsion is the complete displacement of a tooth from its socket.
Luxated maxillary right
Avulsion gingival injury
Avulsed tooth (T/A)
Tooth fractures are either uncomplicated (the pulp is not exposed) or complicated (the pulp is exposed to the oral environment).
Uncomplicated – enamel only (mandibular incisor)
Uncomplicated crown fracture without pulp exposure
Mandibular canine chronic fracture (brown pulp)
Complicated – enters the pulp chamber (maxillary fourth premolar acute fracture (red pulp))
Complicated – crown/root fracture (slab fracture of maxillary fourth premolar)
Pulp exposed after slab removed (white arrow)/black arrows indicate subgingival involvement
Tooth resorption is internal and/or external loss of the tooth hard tissue.