Normal Gingiva (PD 0)
Normal, healthy gingiva with sharp non-inflamed margins
Gingivitis (PD 1)
Inflammation only. No support loss.
Early Periodontal Disease (PD 2)
<25% support loss.
Stage two canine periodontal disease
Radiograph with probe inserted
Moderate Periodontal Disease (PD 3)
25–50% support loss.
Mandibular fourth premolar (canine)
Radiograph of the mandibular molar showing moderate periodontal disease (feline)
Advanced Periodontal Disease (PD 4)
>50% support loss.
Canine gingival recession
Supereruption (extrusion) of the left mandibular canine (feline patient)
Radiograph of feline alveolar bone expansion
Furcation Involvement and Exposure
The furcation is the area where multiple roots diverge from the tooth. Furcation involvement or exposure occurs secondary to periodontal disease.
- F 1 (furcation involvement) is a depression in the furcation area that extends less than half way under the crown in a multirooted tooth.
- F 2 (furcation involvement) exists when a depression in the furcation area extends greater than half way under the crown but not completely through.
- F 3 (furcation exposure) exists when a periodontal probe extends through one side of the furcation and out the other side.
Stage 1 (F1) furcation involvement
Stage 2 (F2) furcation involvement
Stage 3 (F3) furcation exposure. In stage 3 furcation exposures, the periodontal probe advances "through and through."
Gingival recession is a pathological movement of the gingival margin away from the tooth. This causes the root surface to be exposed. Gingival recession is measured from the cementoenamel junction to the gingival margin.
Gingival recession upper fourth premolar
Gingival Hyperplasia (GH)
Gingival hyperplasia is the proliferation of the attached gingiva. Gingival hyperplasia is measured from the cementoenamel junction to the gingival margin.
Mucogingival defects are deviations from the normal anatomic relationship between the gingival margin and the mucogingival junction (MGJ). Common mucogingival conditions are recession, absence or reduction of keratinized tissue and probing depths extending beyond the MGJ.
Mucogingival defect caused by hair licking
Loss of attachment often occurs on the palatal surface of the maxillary canines. If untreated, these defects can progress to the nasal cavity.
12 mm periodontal palatal pocket caused by periodontal disease
Oronasal Fistula (ONF)
Oronasal fistula is a pathological opening in the oral cavity communicating with the nasal cavity. It is usually related to severe periodontal disease.
View into nasal cavity space where maxillary canine resided